COFFEE TERMS

-A-

1AAA

Highest rate for the perfect coffee in coffee classification.

First letter identifies bean defects, next two letters the bean size grade, and the last letter the moisture. This grading is not an international standard.

Not more than 5 full defects in 300 grams of green coffee is Specialty Grade. Colombian Arabica beans, passing through sieve perforations 7.25 mm to 8 mm, are in "AA" (Supremo) grade.

A

Grade of Indian Arabica beans with a screen size of 6.25 mm to 7.25 mm, regarded as large size beans.

AA

Kenya Arabica beans with a screen size of 6.75 mm to 7.25 mm, Colombian Arabica with a screen size of 7.25 mm to 8 mm, regarded as large size beans.

about

Margin of error +/-5% in theory, -2% to -4.5% in practice (Roast Magazine)

aci kahve

Turkish coffee of mostly dark roasted beans and cooked without sugar.

acidity

A major coffee characteristic. It is perceived as a dry sensation under the edges of the tongue and at the back of the palate, and tastes sharp, vibrant and live. Coffee with low acidity tastes dull. Acidity should not be confused with bitterness.

affogato

A coffee-based Italian dessert. A shot of espresso is poured onto a scoop of vanilla gelato.

Africa and Arabian Peninsula

The regions where the coffee was first grown. Typically, coffee grown here provides dry, acidic, chocolaty, fruity tastes and rural, sharp aromas. Africa is the motherland of Ethiopian coffee. Coffee was first grown and cooked in Yemen.

Americano

An espresso drink prepared by adding hot water to espresso. It has a light layer of crema and is stronger than filter coffee.

American roast

Medium roast resulting in medium brown and dry surfaced beans with bean temperature read generally between 215 °C - 240 °C.

afloat

An international commerce term meaning that the coffee beans are aboard and have not arrived at the harbour yet.

aged coffee

Coffee beans that have been stored in warehouses under controlled conditions to create riper and softer flavor characteristics. Those beans age longer.

altura

The term altura means "altitude" in Catalan language. Also Mexican coffee beans grown in high altitudes are named so.

alqueire

A traditional Arabic unit of volume, used by Portuguese since 12th century, approximately 13.8 liters; also a unit of land to yield that amount of crop; mostly dry goods.

Ankola

The premium gourmet coffee beans grown in North Sumarta at elevations from 750 m to 1.500 m. from sea level. Traditionally, Ankola is dry processed, and washed Ankola production has also started.

Arabica

It is the most popular coffee of the modern coffee market.

Arabica (continued)

More than 70% of all coffee beans on the world market is Arabica beans. The Arabica coffee trees, which are affected by the pests, cold and improper harvesting, are grown in cold tropical climate where the soil is rich in moisture. Beans are similar and bitter than Robusta.

arbitrage

Buying a product in one market and immediately selling it in another at a higher price, profiting from the temporary difference in prices. This method is used in coffee market as well.

Arabian Mocha

The oldest coffee grown in Yemen, in the mountainous region in the southeast of Arabian Peninsula, forhundredsofyears. ThecoffeeMochaisnamed after an ancient port there. It is still grown on terraces just like it was 500 years ago. It is distinguished by its "Arabic acidity".

aroma

It is the smell of coffee after the beans are roasted, ground and brewed, and changes proportional to acidity.

Arroba

It is an Arabic origin unit of weight and is equal to 11.5 kg in Mexico and South America, and 14.6 kg in Portugal.

automatic drip coffeemaker

It is a coffee brewing device automatically heating and filtering the coffee.

-B-

babyccino

A beverage made from steamed milk and foam with grated chocolate on top for children inclining to drink coffee.

bag

An international unit of weight of products available to be carried in bags. A coffee bag equals to 60 kg in Brasil and 70 kg in Colombia.

balanced

A taste characteristic of quality coffee, premium fermented or distilled beverages where no taste or aroma dominates or overpowers any other taste/ aroma.

Bani

A low acidic gourmet coffee grown in Dominican Republic.

Barahona

A high-grown coffee in the southeast of Dominican Republic. Barahona is considered to be the finest of the country’s premium gourmet coffees with high acidity and rich flavor.

barista

A person who prepares, brews and serves coffee. It is an Italian word and means the barmen of a bar where no alcohol is served. Since the third wave movement, barista has become a professional; trained in brewing, and servicing coffee with high skills and knowledge.

batch roast

Roasting a specific pre-set quantity (batch) of coffee beans at one time, also the term defining a party of coffee roasted in that way.

beneficio

A facility where the coffee fruits are processed and the beans are removed from the fruit.

bitterness

The primary characteristic of coffee which sometimes is marked as poor. Low bitterness softens the acidity. High bitterness is not desired; for it dominates the other flavors. It is detected toward the back of the mouth. Coffee drinkers intend to confuse the bitterness with acridity created by the proteins in saliva mixing with coffee.

black bean

Dead coffee beans which drop from the trees previous to the harvest. Raw beans may also turn black due to insufficient water from overheating, and getting wet after drying, insects, etc.

black-jack

Caramelized or burnt sugar added to wine, distilled beverages or ground coffee to color them.

braça

An old unit of length of 2.20 m.

breve (espresso breve)

One shot of espresso which is added a half shot of steamed light cream.

Brazils

One of the two western hemisphere grown Arabica coffees (Milds is the other). The principal Brazil coffees, which are named after the ports where they are shipped from; include Rio, Santos, and Parana.

Bogota

The capital of Colombia famous with its coffee shops serving Colombian coffee, and market places.

Bourbon

The Bourbon coffee varietal is a gourmet Arabica coffee plant named after Reunion islands (formerly Bourbon), where the variety is largely grown.

Bourbon includes 12 sub-species, growing in 17 countries particularly in Brazil. It grows best at elevations between 1.100 and 2.000 m above sea level. The trees produce low yield but good quality coffee cherries.

bright

A coffee type with a sharp yet pleasant amount of acidity, creating a dry sense after the taste.

briny

An undesirable flavor that creates a salty taste sensation in the mouth caused either by over-roasting the coffee beans or exposing the coffee beverage to excess heat during brewing.

Bugishu

An Arabica variety, grown in northeast of Uganda near Sipi Falls, with distinguishing aroma and flavor. 20% of Uganda’s coffee production is Bugishu.

Bucaramanga

A coffee plant varietal grown in Santader, Colombia and known for its low acidity. Bucaramanga is also the capital of Santader region.

bland

A pale or neutral flavor which lacks major cof-
fee quality characteristics which is common in Robusta coffees grown in lower altitudes. A bland coffee may be the result of under-extraction during the brewing process, which causes coffee salts to combine with sugars.

blend

Two or more types or origins of coffee beans mixed together to achieve a new flavor.

body

A term describing the brewed coffee's physical properties, heaviness, mouthfeel, and the sensory effects on the tongue such as oil, grain, viscosity, crema (espresso), etc. The body is consisted of dissolved solids as organic acids and oils, proteins, fibers, etc. The processes after the harvest influence the body.

Bodum (French Press)

A brewing method resulting in fine flavor for not holding the volatile oils of coffee in the filter, and the glass coffee maker for Bodum brewing.

bouquet

The coffee’s fragrant aroma/smell after the taste forming the coffee's total aromatic profile.

braça

An old unit of length of 2.20 m.

breve (espresso breve)

One shot of espresso which is added a half shot of steamed light cream.

Brazils

One of the two western hemisphere grown Arabica coffees (Milds is the other). The principal Brazil coffees, which are named after the ports where they are shipped from; include Rio, Santos, and Parana.

Bogota

The capital of Colombia famous with its coffee shops serving Colombian coffee, and market places.

Bourbon

The Bourbon coffee varietal is a gourmet Arabica coffee plant named after Reunion islands (formerly Bourbon), where the variety is largely grown.

Bourbon includes 12 sub-species, growing in 17 countries particularly in Brazil. It grows best at elevations between 1.100 and 2.000 m above sea level. The trees produce low yield but good quality coffee cherries.

bright

A coffee type with a sharp yet pleasant amount of acidity, creating a dry sense after the taste.

briny

An undesirable flavor that creates a salty taste sensation in the mouth caused either by over-roasting the coffee beans or exposing the coffee beverage to excess heat during brewing.

Bugishu

An Arabica variety, grown in northeast of Uganda near Sipi Falls, with distinguishing aroma and flavor. 20% of Uganda’s coffee production is Bugishu.

Bucaramanga

A coffee plant varietal grown in Santader, Colombia and known for its low acidity. Bucaramanga is also the capital of Santader region.

bullhead

A coffee fruit defect for its over sized yet unripe beans.

bundle

A package by roasteries holding 20-30 cups of brewing capacity.

brisure

An old French term meaning broken or cracked coffee bean.

broken

Broken coffee bean.

broker

A person or an agent who arranges transactions between a buyer and a seller for commission.

buttery

Oily, rich coffee flavor that is created by relatively high levels of coffee flavor oils suspended in the brewed coffee.

-C-

C&F-CostandFreight

An international trade term of sale signifying that the price for a shipment does not include insurance charges, but includes all expenses up to a named port of destination. It is commonly used in coffee trade.

Cafe au Lait

French coffee drink recipe prepared using French Press or espresso served in a large, bowl-shaped cup along with heated milk but not foam.

Cafe Bonifieur

Famous Guadalup coffee known for being light fruity, well-balanced, full body, high acidic and aged-wine like flavor characteristics.

café cereja

Pulpy (containing residual fruit particles) coffee bean.

café en parche

Dried coffee bean with unremoved parchment.

café de panno

Coffee beans on cloth. Beans are carefully picked and put on a cloth to avoid any dirt.

cafe despolpado

Depulped coffee beans.

Caffé Latte

An Italian espresso drink with two shots of espresso and about three times as much steamed milk.

Café Mocha

A coffee drink prepared with one shot of espresso, one shot of chocolate syrup, steamed milk and whipped cream.

cafe rebeneficiado

Reselected coffee beans.

cafe terreir

Coffee beans washed in coconut and then wiped.

cafetal

Coffee plantation.

caffeate

Another name for caffeic acid.

caffeine

Also known as Mateine or Guaranine, caffeine is isolated from coffee plant and has high bitter flavor. It stimulates the central nervous system.

caffeine content

The caffeine amount per unit of volume.

caffetannic acid / caffetannin

A crystalized substance isolated from coffee beans and other fruits containing chlorogenic acid.

Caracas

A Venezeuelan class of coffees ranging from fair to excellent quality.

Caturra

A mutation of Bourbon varietal discovered in Brazil in the 1930s growing 500 m and 1.700 m above sea level.

Cappuccino

An Italian beverage with one or two shots of espresso added about twice as much steamed milk and then topped with foam. There are three types of cappuccino e.g., "Bone dry" (no milk), 'Dry" (more foam than usual) and "Wet" (more milk).

caramelly (caramel)

An aromatic sensation and sweet taste created by the coffee’s volatile set of sugar carbonyl compounds.

cardamon

A kind of spice mixed with ground coffee.

Celebes

A Sulawesi coffee grown in southeastern highlands of Toraja and Kalossi, named after the ancient island. The quality is identified as heavy and rich flavor, low-toned yet vibrant acidity.

chaff

The outer paper-thin silverskin of roasted coffee bean.

cherry

The ripe fruit, or berry of the coffee tree.

chicory

The root of the endive plant containing no caffeine, and reducing the stimulation effect of coffee.

Chipinge

The highly aromatic, lively and winey acidic coffee grown in southeast of Zimbabwe.

chocolaty

The description of the aroma aftertaste suggesting unsweetened chocolate.

Cibao

The coffee grown in Dominican Republic in low altitudes, and is known for its low acidity.

city roast

The lightest commercial roast of whose one level darker, full city roast, is used for espresso.

cinnamon roast

The light roast generally describing unoiled and nutty flavor sensation.

coffee fruit

The fruit of coffee with beans.

coffee grade

The category of coffee due to its characteristics.

coffeol

The volatile coffee oil/essence developed during roasting.

cold water method

A method of brewing coffee in a relatively small amount of cold water.

Colombia

The country producing 10% of the world's coffee, known as medium-bodied with a rich taste and citrus-like acidity. The coffee plant varietals include Bourbon, Typica, Caturra, Tabi, Colombia, Maragogype and Castillo.

commissario

The agent middleman in coffee market also known as "coffee broker".

complexity

Multiple layers of flavors present in gourmet coffees e.g., Yemen Mocha, Ethiopia, Sumatra, etc.

continuous roaster

A coffee roaster suitable for large batches of commercial coffee which roasts the coffee continuously.

contract (coffee contract)

An international shipping agreement for 17 tons of a coffee lot in fixed price and time.

Costa Rica

One of the major coffee producing countries in the world where Arabica varietals e.g., Typica, Caturra, Catuai, Villa Sarchi, Bourbon, Gesha, Villalobos are grown.

crema

A thin and foam, golden-brown layer on top of espresso which is in 5 mm thick on a fine brewed one.

Cucuta

A coffee grown in Colombia, but mostly shipped through Maracaibo, Venezuela.

Cup tasting / cupping

The procedure used by professional coffee tasters to objectively assess and evaluate the quality of a specific coffee. International cupping challenges are organized regularly where cupping skills of tasters are tested.

-D-

dark french roast

Coffee beans roasted nearly black in color, creating bittersweet flavor with tones of charcoal and burned qualities.

dark roast

Coffee beans roasted dark brown chocolate, almost black in color.

decaffeinated

Coffee of whose caffeine is removed at least 97% in US standards, and 99% in EU.

decaffeination

Removing caffeine from the coffee beans by direct contact, indirect contact or extraction methods.

demitasse

A cup that holds ~ 8,9 ml of liquid, and which is used to serve ~ 1,43 ml of espresso.

Djimmah / Djimma / Djima

An Ethiopian coffee, excellent and low-acid when it is wet-processed, and imparts undesirable medicinal flavor when unwashed.

Dominican Republic

The country where Bourbon, Catuai, Caturra, Mundo Novo, Typica varieties are grown and sold under the name of Santo Domingo, and known as organic coffee producer.

doppio espresso double espresso

Two espresso shots served in an oversized demitasse or in a Cappuccino cup.

dry processing

Drying the freshly-picked coffee cherry (fruit) in the sun on large patios for a period of time by repeatedly raking and turning.

dripping method

A method of brewing coffee that involves pouring hot water over a bed of roasted, ground coffee which then passes through a filter paper after being extracted.

dry roasting

The method where no water is poured or sprayed over the roasted beans either in the drum roaster or cooling unit. Cooling process by Quenching method does not ruin the dry roasting since no water/ moisture is added to the beans.

-E-

earthy

A cellar-like or mushroomy, reminiscent of soil/ earth or humus aroma/odor or taste. This quality may be desirable or undesirable depending upon the personal preference, and is favorable characteristic of Ethiopian Harrar coffee.

Ecuador

South American and Central American coffees tending to be fairly acidic with a medium body and well-known flavor. The most popular brand of Ecuador coffee is Cafe Cubanito.

en oro

A well cleaned coffee.

en parche

Parchment stage of coffee processing.

espresso

The beverage espresso is made by forcing very hot water under high pressure of ~ 9 atm through a compressed bed of roasted, ground coffee and then servedindemitasse. Ontopoftheespressoisthe floating crema, the thin layer of foam, containing emulsified oils.

espresso con panna

One or two shots of espresso with a dollop of whipped cream on.

estate grown coffee

Coffee that is grown on medium-sized farms that specialize in the cultivation of premium coffee which are labeled by the name of the estate or owner rather than a market name or regional name.

Ethiopia

The country which has provided some of the world’s best reviewed single origin premium coffee beans for hundreds of years.

Ethiopia (continued)

Besides the three main coffee-producing regions i.e., Yirgacheffe, Sidamo and Harrar, there are 10 more less common regions. Djimmah, Limu, Ghimbi and Lekenmti are the most popular coffees of Ethiopia, and Ethiopian coffee is typically sold by region.

excelso

Colombian coffee bean size passing through screen 16 which is slightly smaller than Supremo bean.

extra

The second large bean size after Supremo according to Colombian Coffee Federation's grading system.

Ethiopian Yirgacheffe

An Ethiopian varietal known for its sweet flavor and aroma with a light to medium body, spicy and fragrant, and displaying bright acidity.

European preparation

Removing any foreign matter, as well as any imperfect or defective coffee beans by hand before brewing.

ex dock

An agreement between a buyer and a seller in which the seller delivers a good to a certain dock.

ex warehouse

An agreement between a buyer and a seller in which the seller delivers a good to a certain warehouse.

-F-

FAQ (Fair Average Quality)

International trade term describing average quality crop, grains, legumes, etc.

fazenda

Coffee plantation in Brazil.

fazendeiro

The owner of the large coffee plantations in Brazil.

fermenting

Process of fermentation.

filtering method

A brewing method involving hot water poured over the ground coffee which passes through a filter of paper, cloth or metal.

finish

The pleasant, lingering or quick sensation on the palate during and after swallowing brewed coffee which may range from heavy and sweet to crisp and light, sometimes brief and effervescent, and sometimes acidic.

flat

A dull or boring flavor/aroma of the coffee denoting a lack of acidity which may result from extended holding period, improper storage, etc.

flat white

One or two shots of espresso added micro foam milk.

flavor

The overall and combined sensations of the coffee’s aromaticandtastecharacteristics,the fusion of body, acidity, aroma, bitterness, sweetness, and aftertaste. No single flavor characteristic dominates the other in a well-balanced coffee.

fluid bed roaster

A type of coffee roasting machine which agitates and roasts the green coffee beans using a column of hot air.

French Press

A coffee maker made of a cylindrical glass container with a round, metal screen filter which is tightly fitted to the cylinder. The ground coffee is added hot water and about three or five minutes later the mesh plunger is pushed down forcing the water to separate the extracted coffee from the grounds. Since the mesh does not trap the volatile oils, almost all of the coffee’s natural body is retained.

French Roast

A roast that works good for some specialty coffee beans, darker than American roast, close to Espresso roast that denotes a stop temperature of 240°C.

froth

The dense and creamy layer formed over the milk through a process of steaming/aerating using the steam wand.

fruity

A coffee flavor characteristic suggesting various fruits such as currants, cherries, berries, citrus, etc., which may be either tangy or sweet and is always accompanied by some degree of acidity. It may sometimes indicate that the coffee beans have been over-fermented.

FOB (Free on Board)

Term of sale under which the price invoiced by a seller includes all charges up to placing the goods on board a ship at the port of departure specified by the buyer.

freight forwarder

A person or company that organizes shipping of merchandise on behalf of its shippers.

Full City roast

A light-dark roast, lighter than espresso level roasts and darker than an American Roast that denotes a stop temperature of about 229 °C.

futures (market/contract)

The financial contracts giving the buyer an obligation to purchase an asset (and the seller an obligation to sell an asset) at a set price at a future point in time.

-G-

gaminess

The natural coffee’s off-taste state created by careless processing.

Gayo

A coffee growing region that includes the highlands surrounding the Gayo Mountain and Lake Tawar, found from 1,300 1,600 meters above sea level.

The coffee known as Volcanico Sumatra Gayo with rich spice flavors, clove and cardamom especially, and low acidity, is grown in this region.

The dry-processed Gayo and Sumatra coffee beans are removed from the fruits using "Giling Basah" method. Gayo Mountain branded coffees became popular for good agricultural practices and organic farming are developed in the region.

GHB (Good Hard Beans)

A grade of coffee beans in the altitude-based coffee grading system of Costa Rica grown at elevations ranging from 1.000 to 1.300 m above sea level.

Ghimbi

A wet-processed (washed) coffee varietal grown in the western part of Ethiopia Ghimbi known to have a heavier body than Ethiopian Harrar coffees, and is also more balanced with a longer lasting body with complex flavor and rich, sharp acidity.

glazing

A process of brightening the coffee beans by adding some sugar in the drum during roasting in South America, Spain and Portuguese coffee houses. It is actually discovered in the United States. This process increases the antioxidant content of coffee.

grade/grading

Classification of coffee according to bean size, bean hardness, growing altitude, color, number
of defects, genetic purity, the number under-ripe and/or over-ripe beans, processing method (wet or dry), storage quality for the green coffee beans; and aroma, moisture content, flavor and tasting quality for the roasted.

green, herbal, grassy

A taste quality often detected in unripe coffee beans as well as some batches of freshly-harvested coffee at the beginning of the harvesting season. Insufficient roasting time and roasting heat, not allowing the sugar carbon compounds in the coffee beans to develop, result in this herbal quality.

green coffee beans

Unroasted coffee beans.

group

The part of an espresso machine which the portafilter clamps into, and sticks out the front of the espresso machine.

groupo (portafilter)

The part of an espresso machine that holds the filter basket which in turn hold the roasted, finely ground coffee during brewing. Portafilter contains either one, two or three spouts (usually two), out of which the espresso pours into demitasse.

Guatemala

The world-wide famous coffee producing country where Bourbon, Typica, Catuai, Caturra varieties are grown. The popular Guatemala coffee beans growing at elevations between 1.200 and 1.700 m above sea level are known to offer chocolaty, sweet, slightly nutty, herbal and citrus flavor sensations, and named after the region they are grown. As well as the most popular Antigua, Coban and Huehuetenango coffees, Geisha (Eithopia origin) is recently popular.

-H-

(la) hagienda

Large landed estate system which originated in Spanish America during the colonial period, and assigned to hacendados, the grant holders, in 1529. It was mostly used in coffee and sugar production. The hacienda system which was quitted at the beginning of 20th century was still in practice in Porto Rico until 1950s.

hard

Sour, even stinging secondary coffee flavor characteristic detected at the back of the tongue.

hard bean (HB)

A coffee grown at an altitude of 1.000 m (1.400 to 1.500 m in Guatemala). Higher altitude coffee beans are harder and less porous.

harsh

A coffee flavor characteristic or taste sensation defining astringent bitterness or caustic raspiness. This is a common quality in many Robusta coffees made from imperfect coffee beans.

Hawaii

A group of islands in the United States famous with its Kona coffee, a premium gourmet Arabica varietal grown in Kona district.

high grown

An Arabica coffee grade grown at elevations between 1.200 and 1.800 m above sea level. It is especially used to describe certain grades of Latin American coffee.

hidey

A leather-like or tallowy odor taint caused by excessive heat during drying causing a breakdown in the fats of the coffee beans.

Honduras

The country where Arabica varieties as Bourbon, Caturra, Typica, Catuai, Pacas are grown. Honduran coffees growing at elevations between 1.100 and 1.500 m above sea level offer vanilla and nutty aroma sensations, and city, chocolaty and nutty flavor characteristics.

hulling

The mechanical removal of the wet processed coffee bean’s parchment and silverskin, and simultaneous removal of the dry processed coffee bean’s husk, parchment, and silverskin.

husking

Removing the dried pulp from dry processed coffee beans.

-I-

importer

The merchant buying coffee from a coffee producing country.

India

The country famous with its Mysore coffee which exhibits characteristics similar to Indonesian coffees, particularly Java Arabica.

in-store

Merchandise that is prepared and stocked for ready-to-sell and the contract thereof.

invisible supply

Physical stocks of a commodity that are available for delivery upon futures contracts, but whose quantities cannot be accurately identified.

Ismailî

A respected Yemen coffee grown in central Yemen and also the name of coffee plant varietal which produces pea-like (single) bean.

Italian roast

A dark roast, also called Vienna roast, exhibiting dark brown or black color, nearly burnt taste, and rich and bittersweet flavor with a stop temperature at 235 °C.

-J-

Jamaica

The island known to produce one of the world's best gourmet coffees, the Jamaica Blue Mountain, Jamaica High Mountain Supreme and standard Jamaican Low Mountain. Coffea var. Arabica is grown in Jamaica. Most of Jamaica’s coffee plants today are brought to Martinique by the French in 1723. The Blue Mountain coffee beans are known to be peaberry.

Java (country)

An Indonesian island where Arabica variety Typica is grown at 750-1.500 m above sea level, wet-processed and marketed as "Java coffee". A fine Java coffee with nutty, malty, chocolate, bright and sweet flavor has effervescent body and bright acidity. It is also commonly used in the traditional blend called Mocha-Java along with Yemen Mocha coffee.

Java (term)

An American slang term for brewed coffee, also describes Arabica Java Coffee beans.

Jinotega

Jinotega is the primary coffee growing region in Nicaragua and also the name of the coffee produced thereof. This coffee of Cattura and Bourbon varieties, grown at 1.100 - 1.700 above sea level, are known to offer sweet flavor and smooth body.

Joe (Cup of)

An American nickname for a cup of coffee. Some believe that captain Josephus Daniels, bored of fighting drunk sailors aboard, abolished alcohol on navy ships and only coffee was the best thing to drink.

-K-

Kenya

The country known for its coffee beans exhibiting consistent rich flavor along with deep, wine-like acidity and pleasant aroma. Kenya coffee beans are grown at 1.700 - 1.800 m above sea level, and particularly graded according to bean size. Besides Arabica varietals SL 28, SL 34, K7, Ruiru 11 and Batian, Robusta Canephora is also grown.

knockbox

A wooden or rubber bar spanning an opening in a small box or bin so that the espresso machine portafilter can be knocked against the bar which causes the coffee grinds to fall into the box.

Kona

The coffee beans grown in Hawaii Kona coffee belt exhibiting complex and rich aroma and flavor. Kona coffee is hand picked at harvest, with the farmers returning up to eight times per season
to pick the cherry, and are graded as extra fancy (the highest grade), fancy, Kona #1 and prime (the lowest grade).

Kona region provides for a long maturation period and to some opinion Kona coffee belt is one of the premium Arabica coffee growing regions of the world.

-L-

last bag notice

When approximately 90% of the cargo has been unloaded and stored (esp. at New York harbor), warehouse owners issue the last bag notice in order to inform import officers.

Latte (Caffe Latte)

An espresso beverage prepared pulling two shots of espresso in a heavy, bowl-shaped cup, tall ceramic mug, or clear cup, then adding about three times
as much steamed milk. Once the steamed milk is poured into the cup with a spoon, a small cap of foam is topped.

Latte Macchiato

The espresso is slowly poured on top of a cup of steamed milk forming a dark swirl in the cup called "marking".

Lavado Fino

The best grade of Venezuelan coffee, named as Lavado Fino which means “fine, washed". It is the most premium coffee according to the grading of Venezuela government since 1959.

Limu

A high-quality wet-processed Ethiopian coffee exhibiting a relatively low acidity yet is somewhat sharp. It has well-balanced body, offers noticeable winey and spicy flavors accompanied by fruity tones and sweetness.

Lintong

A coffee, grown in north central region of the island of Sumatra near Lake Toba, sweet with a medium body and low acidity exhibiting earthy and complex aroma, and the name of the growing region.

Long Black

Two shots of espresso or ristretto drawn over hot water. It is prepared like Americano but in reverse order, and is very much liked for the retained crema on top. The origin is Australia.

Long Macchiato

Two shots of espresso pulled into a glass, steamed milk and a dollop of foam added on top. Three layers should be of equal height.

Longberry Harrar

A dry processed Ethiopian coffee that is the biggest grade of Harrar coffee.

Luwak (Kopi Luwak)

The coffee fruits are eaten and passed through the civet's (a kind of musk cat) digestive system, and then the beans are defecated onto the ground. Coffee beans are collected by the farmers, washed and sun-dried. The light roasted Civet coffee is known for its smooth taste, low acidity and very high price. It is grown in The Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia, Bali, Borneo, China and Australia. Since the civets are kept in cages under very bad conditions, Kupi Luwak production is harshly criticized by coffee producing countries, coffee drinkers, animal fans and environmental foundations.

-M-

Macchiatone

A coffee beverage with more milk than macchiato, less than cappuccino.

MAM

The acronym that stands for Colombia's three most distinguished coffees Medellin, Armenia and Manizales, often marketed together, to simplify the writing on export documents.

Maracaibo

The quality grade that stands for Venezuela's classic and premium coffees, Trujillo, Tachira and Merida.

Maragogipe (Elephant bean)

A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal derived from Typica varietal grown at elevations between 600 and 700 m above sea level, and known for its large coffee beans.

mastic

The resin of Pistacia lentiskus tree which is added to coffee while cooking around the Mediterranean.

Matagalpa

A coffee production region in Nicaragua where Caturra and Bourbon varieties are grown.

Mattari

One of the finest coffees grown in the west of the Yemen capital of Sanaa, Mattari coffee exhibits a winey acidity and is sharper than the typical Yemen style coffee.

Mature

Coffee beans that have been stored for two to three years in a warehouse in order to increase the coffee’s body and lessen its acidity. This time of storage is longer than the storage time of an old crop coffee but shorter than the storage of aged coffee.

Mazagran

A town in Algeria and a cold, sweetened coffee originated thereof. The legend goes that French soldiers concocted this drink during the siege. They added alcohol to cold coffee and then it became popular among the Algerians. Algerian version uses lemon and mint, Portuguese uses lemon, mint and rum, and Austrian and French versions are served with an ice cube and rum.

M'buni

The coffee, harvested at the end of the season whether the fruits are ripe or not, in Kenya, and it is considered as bad quality. It is a Swahili term that refers to dry-processed.

mellow

Describes a coffee with primary coffee flavor characteristic that is full and well-balanced. This mellow coffee quality is created by the coffee’s salts combining with sugars, and lacks a significant amount of acidity.

Mexico

The 10th largest coffee producing country in the world where Arabica varietals, mostly Bourbon, Caturra, Maragogype and Mundo Novo are grown in regions Chiapas, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Puebla and named after region of growing. Fine Mexican coffees are known for having light body and acidity, often with a nutty flavor, perhaps with chocolaty overtones, and very pleasant dryness like a fine white wine.

microwave brewer

It is a coffee maker, brewing coffee by microwave technology.

Middle Eastern Coffee

Term describing the Turkish coffee. The pot cezve is named as ibrik, and Turkish coffee is named as Greek coffee interchangeably.

mild

Describes a coffee with a balanced acidity and sweetness, typically medium-bodied, and with an aftertaste that lacks any bitterness or dryness, and is sweet. Mild quality is a secondary coffee flavor sensation caused by a high concentration of salts and sugars, and many high quality Arabica coffees, e.g., wet-processed Sumatra coffee is of that characteristic.

mırra

A one of a kind coffee brewed for a few times, and served in Turkey, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan. The ground coffee is boiled with water until it reaches to a proper thickness and then filtered into a special cup called mutbak. This mixture is added coffee and water, and filtered for a few more times. Then coffee is removed from the residue, and this time just water is added and it is filtered into mutbak a few times.

Cardamom (kakule) may be added for extra flavor. Mırra is not sweetened during preparation for it is drunk without sugar.

Mırra is served in a cooper ibrik or cezve when it becomes thick enough to paint the brim of the cup, like molasse.

Traditionally, Mırra is served to everyone in a single small cup without handle. Serving order is from the old to the younger.

mocha / mocca / moca

Coffee grown traditionally in Yemen without chemicals, dry processed, full-bodied with a rich, winey acidity and deep earthy tones.

mocha (Caffé Mocha)

Two shots of espresso is pulled and poured into a tall glass. 30 ml chocolate syrup or chocolate powder is mixed and steamed milk is added until it is almost full. The coffee finally is topped with a dollop of whipped cream and some chocolate flakes.

Mocha Latte

It is similar to a Caffe Mocha but more milk, and similar to a Caffe Latte but more chocolate. Ideal recipe should be about 1⁄4 espresso, 1⁄4 chocolate, 1⁄2 milk and foam.

monsooned coffee

Green coffee beans are exposed to moist, warm air throughout monsoon season for as long as 3 years by leaving them out in large, open-roof silos or in open warehouses.

musty

A stuffy, cellar-like aroma. This coffee characteristic may be desirable, particularly in coffees that have been properly aged, but sometimes the musty quality is considered as a coffee odor taint. This musty characteristic of aged coffee beans is created by fats absorbing organic materials from mold, but usually by the result of improper drying or aging of the coffee beans of low quality.

-N-

Narino

The finest Colombian coffee, and the growing area in the southeast of Colombia. Narino coffee displays medium body and nutty flavor.

new crop

A taste taint that gives coffee beans a mild herbal character which reveals itself when the coffee is brewed, and is created by an incomplete enzymatic change in insufficiently aged coffee beans.

Nicaragua

Country where coffee plant Arabica varietals as Bourbon (the most), Caturra, Pacamara, Maragogype, Maracaturra, Cutaui and Catimor are grown
in regions of Jinotega, Matagalpa and Segovia. Nicaragua coffee displays a mild, fruity brightness and citrus, caramel, floral and chocolate sensations with bright acidity. Moreover, Nicaraguan Elephant bean, growing best at elevations between 700 and 800 m above sea level, is the world's largest coffee bean.

no arrival, no sale

It is a delivery term that the seller assumes the duty to deliver the goods to a specified place, and if the goods arrive damaged or late, the buyer has the option either to avoid the contract or to accept the goods at a discount.

nuke

To cook in microwave oven.

nutty

A distinct taste and/or aromatic sensation or common trait of South American coffees that is reminiscent of the flavor and aroma of fresh-roasted nuts as peanuts, hazelnuts, sweet almonds, etc.

-O-

Ocoa

The market name of one of the most respected premium gourmet coffee of the Dominican Republic.

old crop

Green coffee beans that were stored in a warehouse before shipping in order to increase the coffee’s body and lessen the acidity. An old crop coffee
is not stored as long as a mature coffee, which is usually stored for two to three years.

open-pot coffee

One of the oldest coffee brewing ways where the ground coffee is added into the boiling water in a pot or pottle and brewed for five minutes. It is also known as cowboy coffee, camping coffee or Hobo.

-P-

Panama

Besides Caturra, Catuai, Typica and Mundo Novo, Panama is the most distinguished country growing coffee Arabica varietal Geisha.

parchment

The inner membrane (endocarp) of coffee berries. It covers the testa (seed coat), also called silverskin. Parchment is also called parche (French), pergamino (Spanish), and pergaminho (Portuguese). Parchment is often left on the dried green coffee beans to protect them until they are roasted. During roasting, the parchment crumbles off naturally as chaff.

past crop (PC)

A taste taint created during the aging process by enzyme changes in the coffee beans, providing a slightly less acidy flavor.

peaberry (caracol, caracolillo)

Just one round seed (bean) as opposed to the usual two half-beans of coffee cherry. Peaberry coffee fruit and the bean are relatively smaller, and the bean is football-shaped without a flatter side.

Due to the beans getting more nutrients from
the coffee tree while developing within the coffee cherry, peaberry coffee beans display robust flavor, rich aroma and distinctive acidity (brighter yet lighter). These characteristics cause peaberry beans to be called the champagne of coffee beans, and they are more expensive.

percolation

One of the four decoction brewing methods where the water, under the double chamber percolator, is circulated around coffee by pressure and creates the extraction while passing to upper chamber. Percolators were commonly used until the mid 1970s.

Peru

A coffee and cacao producing country known with gentle, flavorful and sweet acidity coffee beans, i.e., Urubamba and Chanchamayo.

plantation

An estate on which crops such as coffee, sugar, and tobacco are grown, and the farm within this estate especially in colonization years.

plunger pot (French Press)

A coffee brewing method and also the name of the piece of coffee maker that allows coffee grinds to soak directly in hot water. It is widely considered as the best method for brewing for it allows the body, aroma, acidity, bitterness, sweetness as well as the volatile oils into the cup.

portafilter

The part of an espresso machine that holds the filter basket which in turn hold the roasted, finely ground coffee during brewing. Portafilter contains either one, two or three spouts (usually two), out of which the espresso pours into demitasse.

primary market

Market in which buyers and sellers negotiate and transact business directly, without any intermediary such as agents, resellers, etc.

Primo Lavado (Prime Washed)

The best grade of Mexico coffees pre-wetted and wet processed.

pulping

Removing the outer flesh with the purpose of separating the coffee beans from the pulp.

pyrolysis

The process that occurs during roasting at about 240 °C, during which the chemicals in the fats and carbohydrates in the beans break down into delicate oils causing the coffee’s flavors and aromas to be released.

-Q-

quad

A term for four shots of espresso that some espresso coffee chains use.

quaker(s)

Identifies the coffee beans which are blighted, unripe, or somehow underdeveloped. Quakers may fail to properly roast and instead remain light-colored.

quenching

The process of adding water to coffee beans which have reached their desired roast level (color) during roasting at one stage, or air and water at two stages in order to reduce coffee bean temperature to room temperature. Some scientific researches point out that quenching increases the beans’ moisture content and leads to lower aromatic stability.

-R-

rat eaten

Bags or goods damaged by the rats either at shipment or storage.

red eye

One shot of espresso is added to a cup of brewed coffee.

reís

The Portuguese monetary unit of colonial period, also used by Brazilians until 1942.

rich, richness

Indicates a brewed coffee’s complex, pleasing flavors as well as aftertaste. Richness is a common quality among full-bodied gourmet coffees. The intensity of the richness also reflects the strength of the coffee’s volatile organic compounds such as gases and vapors.

Rio

A class of coffee beans grown in south Brazil, generally considered less than optimal in regards to coffee bean quality, known for their medicinal flavor due to the poor handling of the coffee fruit after harvest.

rioy

The iodine-like, astringent or medicinal flavor/aroma created when coffee cherry dies on the plant and the coffee bean remains within the cherry even as enzyme activity continues. The taste is undesired in North America while it is disregarded in Balkan countries.

Robusta

The varietal of one of the three commercial coffee plants, Canephora. Robusta coffee plants comprise about 25% of the world's commercially grown coffee.Robustacontainsabout twiceasmuchcaffeine as Arabica and is rather used for instant coffees. Robusta tends to be bitter and has less pleasant acidity levels compared to Arabica. Robusta plants are easier to grow because they tolerate less favorable soil and climate conditions and grow at lower elevations, thus Robusta coffee is less expensive to grow.

rubbery, rubber-like

A coffee taste/aroma fault created by the continuing enzyme activity that occurs within the coffee bean when the coffee cherry is not harvested at peak ripeness but instead is allowed to dry on the coffee plant. Dry processed Robusta coffees from Africa typically exhibit this rubbery taste sensation.

-S-

San'ânî

A Yemen Mocha coffee grown in the west of the Yemen capital of Sanaa. Sanani coffee is wellbalanced, with a fruity character, and has a complex and exotic pungency.

Santos

The market name of almost all the Brazil's premium gourmet coffees. The majority of the coffees labeled as Santos are grown in Cerrado region or of Bourbon varietal.

SHB, Strictly Hard Bean

A classification of coffee bean under the altitudebased grading system, describing coffee beans grown at an altitude higher than 1.200 m. This classification is spread around the world first from Latin American countries, and is also known as SHB (Strictly High Grown). The higher elevation coffees are matured more slowly resulting in harder beans and rich flavor/aroma.

shipping sample

A sample taken from a party of goods being transported by a slower vechile (ship, etc.) and being delivered to the buyer by a faster transport (air cargo, etc.).

short black

The name of espresso in some countries and coffee chains.

Sidamo

A premium wet-processed Ethiopian coffee from Arabica trees grown in Sidamo at elevations from 1.500 to 2.200 m above sea level. Sidamo is best known for its rich body that is very complex with vibrant aftertaste. Sidamo, provided that the basic characteristics stay the same, exhibits density changes from season to season.

silverskin (testa)

The layer protecting the seed of the coffee fruit, between the endocarp (parchment) and the seed (bean).

single origin

A description of origin with multiple meanings inducing marketing confusion. Although used for describing the coffee beans from a single plantation, single lot and of single species, the only proof about the origin that SCA/SCAE experts agree is the traceability. A coffee with single origin label is not accepted satisfactory unless the traceability is proven.

slack

A term describing that the packaging or shipping is made loose.

soft

A coffee grading term that refers to coffee beans grown at elevations under 910 m above sea level. These lower elevation coffee cherries mature faster and the beans are less dense (lighter), and more porous.

sound cup

A coffee without any particular negative or positive characteristics/qualities.

sour

Intense tart/briny flavor sensed on the sides, back, and tip of tongue; generally undesirable, perhaps sharp and biting. This is caused by higher concentrations of citric acid, malic acid, and tartaric acid
or excess fermentation during the coffee processing, and often noticed in light-roasted coffees. It should not be confused with the acidity level that is pleasant and desirable in many premium gourmet coffees.

Specialty Coffee

Synonymous term with premium coffee, gourmet coffee, premium gourmet coffee. Specialty coffee is grown and processed by experts with care that develops and preserves their unique and distinctive flavors and aromatic qualities.

spicy

A flavor/aroma descriptor that denotes a sweet and savory taste and/or smell. This spicy quality is produced by moderately volatile hydrocarbon compounds in the aftertaste of the brewed coffee, creating sensations such as cinnamon, allspice, or clove though not spices such as oregano, pepper, and Indian spices.

spot (market)

A financial market in which goods are sold for cash and delivered immediately.

stale

A flat or vapid taste fault due to oxidation after roasting (e.g., due to improper storage). The oxygen and moisture penetrating the coffee bean fibers during storage degrade the taste.

standard, central standard

The altitude between 500 and 900 m. Coffees grown at this altitude range have sweet, simple and smooth flavor sensations.

steam nozzle

An external tube on an espresso machine which provides live steam used for steaming, heating, and also aerating milk. It is also called steam wand, pipe and stylus.

steamer sweat

The damage in ship transportation caused by the goods sweating at the storage.

Straight Coffee

An unblended quantity of coffee beans from one country or region and from a single crop.

Sumatra

An island in Indonesia where some of the best premium gourmet coffees Mandheling, Ankola, and Lintong are grown in Lintong, Aceh and Gayo regions. Sumatra coffees are distinguished by their full body, earthy flavors, herbal tones and with low acidity.

Supremo

Colombian coffee bean grade of screen size 7 mm to 7.5 mm.

sweated coffee

The green coffee beans exposed to steam to become brownish like East Indian and Mocha beans. It is considered to be a kind of ripening.

sweetness

A mild, smooth coffee flavor characteristic without any harsh tastes (e.g., Rio flavor) or flavor defects/ off-flavors. This sweet quality is often perceived as a palatable and/or fruity taste that is sensed primarily at the tip of the tongue.

The professional coffee tasters (cuppers) use this term to describe the intensity of the sugary qualities of the coffee when it is swooshed around in the mouth.

Coffee can be made sweeter by choosing a different roast. Certain coffees contain higher levels of sugars that are more prominent at lower roasts, while the roasting process may caramelize sugars in other origins.

-T-

Tachira

A classic Venezuela coffee known as Maracaibos, named after the port through which they are shipped. Except Merida, Tachira coffees exhibit a sweet and slightly rich flavor with a balanced acidity, and is most similar to Colombian coffee.

tamper

A small, pestle-like tool which is round and flat
on one end to compact the roasted, finely-ground espresso beans into a filter basket/portafilter for brewing an espresso. The standard diameter of a tamper is 58 mm, while down to 49 mm is available. The tamper may be flat or convex based, and with flat and clicked (calibrated) handle.

Tanzania

The 3rd largest coffee producing country of Africa. Tanzanian coffee exhibits black tea, kivi, chocolate, lemon and blackberry flavor and soft pipe tobacco aroma characteristics with medium to full body and bright acidity. The coffee plant Arabica varietals of Tanzania include N & KP, Kent, Bourbon.

tare

The weight of the empty coffee bag.

taste profile

A coffee’s overall flavor qualities including body, aroma, acidity, sweetness/bitterness, and finish/ aftertaste, and also any flavor defects, if there be.

thermal block, thermoblock

A radiator-like heating unit of an espresso machine that heats the water for single use on the way from reservoir, instead of heating up all of the water.

Timor

An island in Indonesia where the Hybrido de Timor (hybrid of Robusta and Arabica) and Catimor varietals are grown. Timor hybrid is also called Tim Tim or Bor Bor.

tipped

A mistake during coffee roasting which causes a charring of the end of the coffee beans due to over heat being applied too quickly.

Toraja (Celebes)

The coffee grown in Sulawesi island of Indonesia, also known as Celebes. Toraja coffee tends to have low-toned yet vibrant acidity, with muted fruit notes and rustic sweetness and sharp spicy quality. A dark roast is recommended.

traviesa harvest

The second harvest period in Latin American countries, in which less crop is harvested than the main harvest season.

triage

Assorting the physicochemical defects of coffee beans whether they are permissible or not.

Trujillo

A Venezuela Maracaibo coffee known by its distinguishing flavor.

Turkish Coffee

A distinctive and traditional brewing (decoction) method that includes grinding coffee beans to a powder, adding sugar if desired, and then cooking
it slowly in water in a brass or cooper cezve with a long handle, until it reaches the boiling point. Then it is poured directly into a traditional demitasse and served with coffee grinds settled.

Typica

A relatively tall and conical shaped old Arabica varietal coffee plant growing up to about 3.7 m in height, which Arusha, Bergendal, Blue Mountain, Maragogype, Maragojipe, Mundo Novo, etc., hybrid varietals derived from. Typica produces one of the most admired coffee beans for brewing.

-U-

Uganda

The second largest Robusta exporting African country whose 80% of coffee production is Robusta varietal. It is also one of the rarest geographies where the wild Robusta plant is grown. Coffee Arabica varietal Bugishi is also grown in northeast Uganda near Sipi Falls.

UGC (Usually Good Quality)

A coffee bean grading system meaning "usually good quality" identifying that 24-25 defects per 1000 (app.300 g), and 5% above screen 14 (5.5 mm) (small beans).

unbalanced

Describes a coffee with taste/aroma characteristics that are complex enough to be interesting, yet with one or more elements or qualities of the coffee dominating the other taste/aroma characteristics.

unwashed

Drying the harvested ripe coffee fruits in the sun on large patios by repeatedly raking and turning until the beans are removed, and decreasing the moisture content down to app. 10.5%.

-V-

varietal

A term describing the genetic subspecies of the main coffee species (e.g., Arabica, Robusta, Liberica, Excelsa) derived either naturally or by selective breeding, having characteristics different from its main species.

vector

Insects that carry and transmit the pest microorganisms from plant to plant. Hypothenemus hampei, a coffee berry borer carrying a fungus known to produce ochratoxin, is a common insect pest in coffee plantations.

Venezuella

The country where coffees such as Tachira, Caracas, and Merida are produced from Arabica varietals Bourbon, Typica, Caturra and Mundo Novo, and are exported from port Maracaibo.

Vienna Roast

A popular commercial roast considerably darker than American roast that denotes a stop temperature between 232 °C and 235 °C.

Viennese coffee

A term describing both a coffee brewed from coffee beans that were given a Viennese Roast, and any brewed coffee topped with whipped cream.

Viennese Espresso

Two shots of espresso mixed with 4 ground cloves, 1⁄2 teaspoon cinnamon, and 1⁄2 teaspoon allspice finally topped with whipped cream.

vintage coffee

A coffee that is aged longer than mature coffees or old crop coffees either intentionally or inadvertently, with a distinct coffee flavor characteristic due to enzyme activity which results in developed body but low acidity level.

visible supply

Commodities that are in a warehouse and are able to be delivered for a spot or futures contract. The increasing visible supply reduce the prices, while the decreasing stocks create increase of prices.

-W-

washed, wet

A method of getting the beans off the coffee cherry by first wetting, then removing the pulp from the green coffee with pulper, followed by removing
the mucilage and parchment after 8 to 24 hours of fermentation, finally drying the beans either in the sunlight or by forced-air drying.

This method produces a clean taste, and also helps to ensure a shining, bright acidity. One undesirable effect, however, is that it causes the coffee to lose much of its body.

whole bean

Roasted but not ground coffee bean.

wilted

A crop completely dried; became limp or flaccid, drooped due to drought or diseases.

winey

A slight hint of a flavor sensation suggesting fine red wine, created by the contrast between the coffee’s fruit-like acidity and smooth body. This flavor quality is typical of many premium Kenyan coffees.

woody

A desirable coffee flavor characteristic and/or aroma sensation descriptor, perhaps a floral aroma, present in some premium gourmet coffees, containing reminiscence of oak, the bark of a tree, or dry wood.

-Y, Z-

Yemen

The motherland of Mocha, and producer of wellknown Ismaili, San'ani and Mattari coffees. Although the coffee production, which was peaked in the 17th century, has been reduced for the region has undergone civil war and massive outbreak of diseases, some of the world's premium coffees are still grown in Yemen.

Yirgacheffe (Yrgacheffe, Yergacheffe)

An Ethiopian coffee grown at elevations betwe-
en 1.700 and 2.200 m above sea level of Arabica Heirlom varietals exhibiting floral, complex, fruity, tea and lemon flavor characteristics. Yirgacheffe is spicy and fragrant, and rates as the highest quality Arabica coffees at premium price.

Zimbabwe

The country where Caltimor variety is grown at an altitude of 900 and 1.100 m, and medium-bodied Chipinge coffee with citrus acidity, sweet, chocolaty, woody and winey flavor characteristics is produced.